Classical Theism and Divine Action: Challenges from an Evolving Cosmos

The reality of an evolving cosmos is often taken to be at odds with classical theism, where God timelessly orders the whole of creation with exhaustive foreknowledge. However, I argue that much of the reaction against classical theism depends on inaccurate caricatures of what is actually entailed by the classical view, as well as an insufficient appreciation of the distinction between primary and secondary causation as it relates to God’s causal role in the world.