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Looking at the Collapsing Universe in the Bible

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December 21, 2012 Tags: Christ & New Creation
Looking at the Collapsing Universe in the Bible

Today's entry was written by Brian Godawa. Please note the views expressed here are those of the author, not necessarily of BioLogos. You can read more about what we believe here.

Note: With all the talk about the end of the world this week, we thought it would be good to reflect back on Brian Godawa's look at Revelations and the "collapsing universe" it presents. Today we repost the first entry in the series. The rest of the posts can be found here.

Creation and Decreation

When he opened the sixth seal, I looked, and behold, there was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, the full moon became like blood, and the stars of the sky fell to the earth as the fig tree sheds its winter fruit when shaken by a gale. The sky vanished like a scroll that is being rolled up, and every mountain and island was removed from its place. (Revelation 6:12–14)

The non-concordist view of science and Scripture argues that Biblical texts about creation were never intended to concord with modern scientific theories. Thus, Genesis 1 is not cryptically describing the Big Bang or instant fiat, a young earth or old earth, special creation or evolutionary creation. It is not “literal” language describing the physics of the universe; it is “literary” genre describing God’s sovereignty over creation and most likely his covenantal relationship with his people.

But the argument against literalism of language of the creation of the heavens and the earth is also applicable to the language of the destruction of the heavens and the earth, or what the Bible calls, “the last days,” “the end of the age,” “the end of days,” or “the Day of the Lord.” Christians often refer to this as “the end times,” but the technical theological term is eschatology, which means “the study of end things.”

Regarding the end times, the modern Evangelical popular imagination has been deeply influenced and at times dominated by a theological construct that is best reflected in the 1970s bestselling The Late Great Planet Earth by Hal Lindsey and the newer bestselling fictional phenomenon Left Behind by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins.

This view believes that the Bible foretells an as-yet future scenario on the earth of a rapture of Christians, followed by the rise of an “Anti-Christ,” a world dictator who initiates a Great Tribulation on the earth, requires a “Mark of the Beast,” and assembles global forces for a battle of Armageddon against Israel, resulting in the Second Coming of Christ who replaces the universe with a new heavens and earth to rule forever. The technical theological term for this view is futurism, the belief that prophecies about the end times are yet to be fulfilled in the future.1

In this article, I will address the hermeneutic or interpretive approach used by this futurist perspective and apply it to the particular aspect of creation language, or in this case, decreation language -- the collapsing universe and the destruction of the heavens and the earth.

In short, the language of cosmic catastrophe often interpreted literally as referring to the end of the space-time universe is actually used by Biblical authors to figuratively express the cosmic significance of the covenantal relationship between God and humanity.

The tendency of modern literalism is to interpret descriptions of signs in the heavens and earth as being quite literal events of the heavens and earth shaking, stars falling from the sky, the moon turning blood red, and the sky rolling up like a scroll. The problem with this hermeneutic is that it assumes the priority of modernity over the ancient world. Rather than seeking to understand the origins of symbols and images used by the writers within their ancient context, this literalism often suggests the writer was seeing events that would occur in our modern day but did not understand them, so he used his ancient “primitive” language to describe it.

So for instance when the apostle John saw modern day tools of war in his revelation, such as battle helicopters, he did not know what they were so he described them in ancient terms that he did understand such as locusts with the sting of scorpions, breastplates of iron, a crown of gold and human faces, whose chopper blades made the “noise of many chariots with horses rushing into battle” (Rev 9:3-9).

I was taught this modernist interpretation and lived by it for many years. When I read about Jesus explaining the “end of the age” I would assume he meant the “end of the space-time universe” because that’s the kind of language I, a post-Enlightened modern scientific mind, would use to describe such an event. When he spoke of the moon turning blood red and the sun being darkened, I assumed such events were easy miracles for God, so if you considered them figurative, you were falling down the slippery slope of neo-orthodoxy. When Jesus said stars would fall from the sky, you had better bet stars would literally fall from the sky (a primitive description of meteors2) or else you’re a liberal who doesn’t believe in the literal accuracy of the Bible.

But all that changed when I sought to understand the prophetic discourse on its own terms within its ancient cultural context instead of from my own cultural bias. I now propose that the ancient writers did understand what they were seeing, but were using symbols and images they were culturally steeped in, symbols and images with a history of usage from the Old Testament, their cultural context – not mine.

In this essay, I will argue that the decreation language of a collapsing universe with falling stars and signs in the heavens was actually symbolic discourse about world-changing events and powers related to the end of the old covenant and the coming of the new covenant as God’s “new world order.” In this interpretation, predictions of the collapsing universe were figuratively fulfilled in the historic past of the first century. The technical theological term for this view is preterism, the belief that most or all prophecies about the end times have been fulfilled in the past.3


1. The Left Behind series is a particular version of futurism called Dispensational Premillennialism. For a more in depth presentation of these varieties of eschatology see Bock, Darrell L. ed., Three Views on the Millennium and Beyond. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999.
2. Interestingly, as soon as the interpreter thinks falling stars are meteors, he has just engaged in figurative speculation, which is not literal.
3. Some examples of orthodox scholars who hold to this view are Sproul, R.C. The Last Days According to Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1998; and Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr. Navigating the Book of Revelation. Fountain Inn: SC, Goodbirth Ministries, 2009.

Brian Godawa is the screenwriter of To End All Wars and other feature films. He has written and directed documentaries on church-state relations, stem cell research and higher education politics. He is the author of Hollywood Worldviews: Watching Films with Wisdom and Discernment (InterVarsity Press) and Chronicles of the Nephilim, a series of fantasy novels about Biblical heroes within their ancient Near Eastern mythological context. He speaks around the country to churches, high schools and colleges on movies, worldviews and faith. His movie blog can be found at godawa.com/movieblog/.

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Joriss - #75773

January 2nd 2013


A happy new year in the first place,

I fully agree with you that Jeremiah 31 is a prophetic chapter about the coming of the Messiah and the new and different covenant, of which covenant many other verses in the OT are prophecying as well. But in my opinion (the departure of) the ordinances of the sun and moon in this chapter are not at all used as methaphors of (the end of) the cultic Temple applications, but are just an analogy of God’s reliability towards Israel, just something like a father saying to his son: The moment I’ll turn into a  turkey, I will no longer keep my promises to you. The son will accept this as a reliable warranty, I guess….
So if there is reason in Scriptures to connect sun and moon with the cultic Temple application - not in this chapter; that’s what I think.

What is emphasized in chapter 30 and 31 as well, is that God will never put an end to Israel, but even make a new covenant with the house of Israel, a better than the first one that was broken by Israel.

We all know that this new covenant is the covenant with the better promises, the unbreakable covenant, when the promise to Eva, to Abraham, was realised in Christ, their offspring, our Saviour and realised in our hearts in which the law is written through the Holy Spirit. This covenant was for the Jews in the first place and also for the Greek (=Gentiles).(Rom.2:10). Yes, I totally agree with you that his covenant has to do with the Kingdom of God, heavenly ruled by Christ and God, of which Jesus says to Pilate: it is not of this world(system). He did NOT say: my Kingdom is not of this earth.

Daniel, by the Holy spirit, explains Nebukadnessar’s dream: The rockstone, that destroyed the great image and became a big mountain that filled the earth, that is the everlasting Kingdom from God, that will destroy all the earlier kingdoms. Daniel 2:35, 44 and 45.

Matthew 5:3 and 5

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven

Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth.

Ofcourse these are the same category of people like the other blessed people in this speech of Jesus. So it is clear that the people of the Kingdom of Heaven are the ones that also will inherit the earth.

Matthew 6:10 Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. The Lord’s Prayer is not an utopic wish!

What about the seed of man and of beasts: In the entire book of Jeremiah I can only find the word “beasts” used in a natural way; mostly their presence or absence is connected with that of people and is connected with blessing - flourishing - or curse - destroyment. So to me it is clear that also 31:27 should be seen in the same way: the house of Israel will be rebuilt and be blessed again; that is said in chapter 30 and 31 as well: man and beasts will be there in multitudes again. So again: if man = Jews and beasts = Gentiles, okay, but this chapter doesn’t say so in my opinion.
But of course it is true that Gentils and Jews are one in Christ without  “for he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us]” Eph. 2:14. So there is one church of Jews and Gentiles together. But no less it is true that the heavenly Kingdom will unite Heaven and earth and that that there will be peace on earth which was said by the angels in Luke 2:14 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.

All these texts point to a heavenly Kingdom on the very earth, so that “the EARTH shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.” Habakuk 2:14.

wesseldawn - #75774

January 2nd 2013

Sorry Micah, the last two paragraphs are difficult to read, here they are again:

For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. (Heb. 9:26)

...and then you have the final “end” of “the end”, which so many verses refer to that culminates in the dissolving of the heavens, what some physicists refer to as The Big Rip. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0302506

I should have further added that regarding the Bible you must find “all” the verses that speak on a particular subject (matching with same phrases) and collectively (repetitive algorithm) they will explain the meaning and clarify any discrepancies (an exhaustive concordance is invaluable but also keeping in mind that synonyms are often used).


Happy New Year

Ed Babinski - #76263

January 31st 2013

Preterism? Biologos wants to support preterism?

Yet another topic in which Christians debunk other Christians, endlessly. 


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