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Evolution and Personal Faith: How Christian University Students Resolve the Conflict, Part 1

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August 22, 2012 Tags: Education

Today's entry was written by Mark Winslow. Please note the views expressed here are those of the author, not necessarily of The BioLogos Foundation. You can read more about what we believe here.

Evolution and Personal Faith: How Christian University Students Resolve the Conflict, Part 1
image credit: Ryan Pettey/Satellite Pictures

As students across the country begin another academic year, nearly all of them will receive some kind of science education, and many will experience tension between what they have been taught about God's creation in church or at home, and what they are likely to find in science textbooks and hear from their instructors. How should that tension be addressed? How might it be resolved? What resources does the Church have (and still need) to equip our young people to honor the truth God has revealed in both his Word and his world, and to share in the work of his Kingdom?

Today we continue to look at those questions from several perspectives and approaches and in multiple educational settings with the first of a four-part series on how Christian biology-related majors at a mid-Western Christian liberal arts university reconciled evolution and their personal religious beliefs. Here in part 1, Dr. Mark Winslow lays out the methodology of the study he and his colleagues conducted and describes the influence parents had on study participants’ beliefs about evolution and creationism. In subsequent posts tomorrow and next week, he describes how students negotiated their perceived conflicts, as well as what factors led to their acceptance of evolution.

Framing the Problem

I have to ask God to give me patience to not hate the men who cause me and my dad to argue about origins. I think that if they could just realize that science is not out to destroy God then maybe they would give it a chance.

Rachel spoke these words as she reflected on her relationship with her father and the strain she felt about her own acceptance of evolution. Rachel had grown up as a pastor’s kid firmly entrenched in Young Earth Creationism. When she enrolled in a Zoology course at a Christian college as a Pre-Med major, it was the first time she had encountered the notion that a person could accept evolution and remain a vibrant Christian – her professor was a testament to that reality. Through her experiences at the university, Rachel eventually came to accept cosmological, geological, and biological evolution as valid in understanding the long history of the universe and life on Earth. However, her acceptance of evolution was an extended journey marked by conflict resolution and apprehension.

Rachel’s account of her struggle with evolution resonates with the stories told by many participants in a qualitative research case study designed to explore how Christian biology-related majors at a mid-Western Christian liberal arts university reconciled evolution and their personal religious beliefs. Their individual stories and the common themes that emerged from research data are the focus of this three-part series.

This first part of the series provides a backdrop for the reader to see this crucible of conflict from the participants’ perspectives – using their words to convey the struggle and anxiety of encountering evolution in juxtaposition to their faith. The second part of the article explores the participants’ negotiation of their perceived conflict between evolution and their personal faith. The third and final part of the series discusses the factors in the participants coming to an acceptance of evolution and addresses the question, “What, then, are the ramifications for college educators and those who seek to mentor young people in reconciling science and faith?”

The 15 participants in the case study were senior biology-related majors (biology, biology-chemistry, or biological science education) and recent graduates (within the last two years) who majored in a biology-related science, and had completed an upper-level biology course on evolution entitled Origins. While a diversity of approaches exists in addressing evolution issues at Christian universities, no aspect of the study site suggested that it was atypical of higher education institutions committed to the teaching of evolution in non-opposition to religious belief. Or to put it positively, the college is typical of other Christian institutions where evolution is taught as being compatible with faith.

Parental Influence

Data were collected for the study from December 2006 to August 2007, utilizing a dual interview design. The first interview investigated the participants’ worldview using Fowler’s (1981) structural-developmental theory of “stages of faith” which describe the cognitive rationale and affective response in shaping one’s world. The second interview was conducted approximately a week following the first interview and explored participants’ perceived conflicts between evolution and personal religious beliefs. Additional data came in the form of the Evolution Attitudes Survey (Ingram & Nelson, 2006); descriptive field notes of the Origins course in Spring 2007; a “scholarly paper” that participants wrote in the Origins class that integrated course content with their own worldview; and participant feedback on interview transcripts and researcher-written descriptive personal portraits that described their views of creationism and evolution. The data was coded, and through multiple readings and refinement of codes, patterns evident within the data suggested common themes in the experiences of the students.

This article series is not a formal presentation of the study (see Winslow, 2008 and Winslow, Staver, & Scharmann, 2011), but seeks to tell a story from the participants’ perspectives to help the reader better understand their experiences in reconciling science and faith.

Participants’ Views of Creationism and Evolution

Table 1 summarizes participants’ childhood beliefs, including the sources for those beliefs, and their views on creationism and evolution at the time of the study. As the data show, most of the participants were raised during childhood to believe in Young Earth Creationism.

Many participants reported that their strong creationist and anti-evolution beliefs were due to their parents’ influence during childhood. Eight participants voiced that one or both parents expressed a strong belief in creationism throughout the participants’ childhood and expected participants to hold similar beliefs. For example, Nicole stated, “My family was . . . very much of the Genesis is the golden rule. God created the earth in seven days. That’s how it happened, no questions asked. If you asked questions, . . . you were thinking too hard about it.”

Asked about where she acquired her negative view of evolution before enrolling at the study site university, Rachel recalled hearing her parents’ conversations, such as, “Darwin is a tool of the devil and . . . he’s led so many people astray from God and that’s just terrible and don’t get sucked into that because it’s the devil working through him.” Rachel added, “I’d be kinda listening in” and soon enough, she found herself saying to her high school friends, “Oh yeah, I can’t believe these evolutionist liberals.” She added, “Those two words always went together – liberal and evolutionist!”

Other participants remarked that they simply assimilated creationist beliefs from what they heard in church. Six participants perceived that their parents believed in creationism, but primarily because creationism was part of the participants’ upbringing in the church. In other words, parents’ expression of their belief in creationism was less pronounced than in the other eight cases. For example, Ashley noted,

"I’m pretty safe in saying from the time I was born until high school senior year, the first chapter of Genesis was literal. That’s just how I was raised. . . . Nothing was ever questioned." Ashley clarified, “Not that they [my parents] said everything in the Bible is word for word true, . . . but no one ever said the opposite, that it wasn’t literal. So I just assumed that it was.”

Other factors, such as church, friends, siblings, and spouses were construed by participants as relatively moderate influences in their lives. For example, when participants expressed apprehension in their encounters with evolution, not a single participant expressed anxiety about the response of their church or pastor. Instead, most were worried about the reaction of their parents.

For many participants, the anti-evolution sentiments they heard in childhood continued while learning evolution at the study site university. Several participants asserted that their parents expressed displeasure that their daughter or son was learning evolution at a Christian university. For example, Jennifer stated that whenever her parents spoke of “evolution stuff,” they would pejoratively append, “and that’s not right.” In high school, Jennifer thought of evolution as “kind of a theory. . . . It was just something . . . good for the scientists, but that’s not what happened.” She recalled in her junior AP Biology class that the teacher announced, “Well, I teach evolution as a theory, not as a scientific explanation.” Jennifer laughed as she recounted, “My mom was real happy that I was having her for my teacher.” However, when Jennifer took the Origins course at the study site university, she began to share her new ideas about evolution with her parents. She recalled they became increasingly “apprehensive about things.” Jennifer could tell by their body language and, as she described,

[the] kind of looks they give me whenever I’m like, “Well, what about this [evidence for evolution]?” Because I get real kind of built up about things like this . . . and I’m like, “But this is what I learned in college” [shouting as she says this] and I bring my papers home and I’m like, “Look at this” [pounding the table] and they’re like a little skeptical. . . . You kind of see it in their eyes and they furrow their brow and stuff like that.

Jennifer enjoyed a strong relationship with her parents and despite the pressure she encountered from her parents regarding evolution, she said, “I’ve come to respect their opinions about certain things a lot more. At the same time, I’ve come to realize that maybe they’re not always right in every single thing. . . . It’s okay for me to think differently than them.” As reflected in the last column of Table 1, Jennifer was among the thirteen participants who—at the time of the study—affirmed that God created through evolution in contrast to their childhood beliefs.

Two noticeable exceptions are Ashley and David. David espoused a traditional, Young Earth Creationist view. Ashley’s views were a hybrid model of Old Earth Creationism and Evolutionary Creationism perspectives. Having come from a strong creationist background, Ashley adapted her views while in college to assert that God specially intervened to create an initial line of ten thousand species through which evolution took over to result in the diversity of life on earth. Item 1 in the Evolution Attitudes Survey stated, “Over billions of years all plants and animals on Earth descended from a common ancestor.” David strongly disagreed and Ashley disagreed with this statement. Nine participants agreed and four participants were undecided.

Most participants also accepted human evolution as evidenced from their interview statements, scholarly papers, and survey data. Five items in the Evolution Attitudes Survey dealt directly with human evolution. Marking “strongly disagree” or “disagree” on these statements would indicate an acceptance of human evolution. Fourteen participants demonstrated an acceptance of human evolution from their survey results. David was the lone exception. Eight participants either “strongly disagreed” or “disagreed” on all five items while the remaining participants marked disagree with only one or two “undecideds” on the five survey items.

The results from the survey show a clear trend in 14 participants’ acceptance of human evolution despite a relatively mixed response to Item 1, which said, “Over billions of years all plants and animals on Earth descended from a common ancestor.” For instance, Ashley disagreed with evolution from a common ancestor, but she disagreed with every statement that rejected human evolution. Similarly, all four participants who were undecided on evolution from a common ancestor indicated by their survey responses that they accepted human evolution.

Participants saw ample evidence for human evolution in the Origins course both in textbook and lecture materials. Accepting human evolution may require less scientific inference in the minds of the participants than the linking of all living things to a single ancestor billions of years ago. Many participants expressed that human evolution was part of the larger story of evolution. When asked if humans evolved, Gail said, “For evolution to make sense in my head, we have to have had a common ancestor. If I understand evolution correctly, there has to be some ultimate beginning, which would be a link for all of us.”

The transition from Young Earth Creationism to Evolutionary Creationism for most of the participants was not an easy one. As we’ll see in the next part of this article, that journey was marked by apprehension and a process of conflict resolution.

References

Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: HarperCollins.
Ingram, E. L., & Nelson, C. E. (2006). Relationship between achievement and students’ acceptance of evolution or creation in an upper-level evolution course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(1), 7-24.
Winslow, M. W. (2008). Evolution and personal religious belief: Christian biology-related majors' search for reconciliation at a Christian university. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3310836). Available at the Kansas State Research Exchange Web site: http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/710.
Winslow, M. W., Staver, J. R., & Scharmann, L. C. (2011). Evolution and personal religious belief: Christian university biology-related majors' search for reconciliation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(9), 1026-1049.


Mark Winslow is the Dean of the College of Natural, Social, and Health Sciences at Southern Nazarene University (SNU) in Bethany, OK. He earned a B.S. from Greenville College, an M.S. from the University of Kansas, and his Ph.D. from Kansas State University. Previously, he taught physics and science education at the college level for 18 years. His research interests include understanding how college students accommodate evolution and religious beliefs; and working with undergraduates in developing pedagogical techniques and learning resources for physics and astronomy. Winslow grew up in Taiwan as a missionary kid. He’s married with three children.

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Francis - #72141

August 22nd 2012

College students have always faced varying degrees of stress in handling their workload, regardless of academic specialty.

For anyone out there: How many academic specialties or individual courses do you know of which are “marked by apprehension and a process of conflict resolution” among students, teachers and parents?

 


Francis - #72145

August 22nd 2012

Perhaps some Christian colleges are relatively free of the taint, but wide-spread bias in academia has been well-documented over many years. Here’s a recent striking development in one particular area - psychological science. Be sure to check out the 7-minute trailer at the end. It deals with the subject matter of this blog.

http://news.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474981518329


RBH - #72146

August 22nd 2012

I suggest <a href=”<a href=“http://www.expelledexposed.com/”>http://www.expelledexposed.com/”>Expelled Exposed</a> as an antidote to Francis’ “Expelled” trailer.


RBH - #72147

August 22nd 2012

(And someday I’ll learn how to embed links on BioLogos!)


Merv - #72149

August 22nd 2012

Francis, one can bemoan the biases present at universities—especially when those biases don’t match your own.  But here is something else to consider:  What if, in the process of relentless truth seeking, certain true answers are actually found?  Is it then close-minded of people to think they’ve found an answer?  If one can’t accept that answers can actually be found then one isn’t really a truth seeker.

If it should happen that some truths also happen to be some of the same things that people lump together with liberalism, then voila!  Relentless truth seekers might be seen accumulating around some “liberal” notion.  But if they are indeed truth seekers, then they won’t care what labels people give it.  All they know is its probable truth.

I do find it curious that you personally have migrated away from accepting evolution and towards (YEC?).  That path is apparently a rare direction according to this article and according to everything else I’ve heard or read as well.  We hear so much about youth leaving YEC views behind in college and embracing creationist views less hostile towards evolution.  If you are inclined I wouldn’t mind hearing your story (did it start with non-YEC parents?) and how your progression managed to “swim upstream” as it were.

-Merv


Francis - #72154

August 22nd 2012

One’s worldview (one’s “religion”, if you will) colors everything he thinks and does, including his job.

Like just about anyone else, I admire excellence no matter what field it’s in. For instance, I have a high opinion of real science done well. I just don’t have a high opinion of most scientists.

Only about a third of scientists believe in God. Compared to the general public, scientists are 10 times more likely to be atheistic.

http://www.pewforum.org/Science-and-Bioethics/Scientists-and-Belief.aspx

 

 

I hope for their sakes that the science teachers know what they’re doing, and are doing so nobly and truthfully.

“but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened round his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.” [Mat 18:6. Also Mark 9:42, Luke 17:2]

“Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, for you know that we who teach shall be judged with greater strictness.” [James 3:1]


Francis - #72155

August 22nd 2012

Merv,

“What if, in the process of relentless truth seeking, certain true answers are actually found? Is it then close-minded of people to think they’ve found an answer?”

“Close-minded”?  I would think “joyful” would be more descriptive. But you would also appropriately have some “close” going on – as in “close-fisted”. More specifically, “close-fisted” in the sense of “cling tightly” or as in

“Only let us hold true to what we have attained” [Phil 3:16] or as in

“but test everything; hold fast what is good” [ 1 Thes 5:21]

At the same time, however, one who has attained the truth is wonderfully “open-minded”, in a sense. He can take on all comers, because he knows that the truth cannot be contradicted and cannot be proven false. The truth provides great freedom and peace.

 

“If you are inclined I wouldn’t mind hearing your story.”

See #71710 in http://biologos.org/blog/science-and-the-bible-the-framework-view

 


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